Medieval Helmets

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Conical Helmet - 8th / 13th Century

Medieval Helmets of the Norman Period

From the Norman Conquest to the end of the 12th Century, the Medieval Helmets in use were mainly of the type known as the "nasal helmet", a casque with an extension protecting the nose, hence the name. It was also known as the "Casque Normand", and it was surmounting the continuous coif.

As a main piece of defense, the continuous coif, named this way because it was continuing the hauberk, is seen constantly in the Bayeux tapestry. It occurs also in many seals of the 12th Century, and in vellum paintings of this time. The hood of mail made separately from the hauberk does not appear till the 13th Century.

The helmets not having nasals were chiefly conical, round and flat-topped.

The cylindrical or flat-topped Medieval Helmets appears to have came into fashion towards the close of the 12th Century.  In its earliest examples, the casque was of one piece, having two horizontal clefts for vision, and being strengthened by bands crossing each other over the face and on the top.

Great Helm - 13th Century

Medieval Helmets in the 13th Century

At the beginning of the 13th Century, the continuous coif is still part of the hauberk of chain-mail.  The shape was flattened at the top of the head. In the second half of the century, the round topped coif was more usual.

The Medieval Helmets developed into the cylindrical casque, which is common in the 13h Century.  The term cylindrical must not always be understood literally. In some cases, the cylinder swells, taking the barrel form. It had a grated-ventail by which a better supply of air could always be obtained.  A still more abundant provision occasionally was acquired by opening the ventaglia, constructed with hinges at the sides.
Medieval Helmets Classification

An important change in the defensive equipment of the warrior is marked by the development of the helm, the great casque enclosing the whole head of the knight. The great casque came into use towards the end of the 12th Century. From now on, the Medieval Helmets can be classified in two categories: helms and helmets. The term helm will be used to designate the new type of headpiece, while the helmet will designate a piece of diminished completeness, the non-closed casque.

There were two leading kinds of helms: the helm was either one piece, or the front was provided with a moveable ventail. The flat-topped helm with movable ventail appears about the middle of the century. The successive changes of fashion supply a further division of the helms: the flat topped, the round topped, and the sugar-leaf form. Around 1270, the round-topped helm came into vogue. The helm was worn over the coif of chain-mail.

The helmets may be classed as the hemispherical, the cylindrical, the conical, and the nasal. The bascinet was in use at this time, but do not appear to have been anything more than the round-topped skull-cap.
Medieval Helmets of the 14th Century

The head-defenses of the 14th Century may be considered under the same two classes of helms and helmets.  Helms provided freedom of breathing by means of perforations in the lower part. Some helms have holes made on the right side, in order that the lance of the antagonist, who, if in a tilt passed on that side, might glide off freely.

Helms were made mainly of iron or steel, and were occasionally guilt.  For war, the great helm was placed over the bascinet.

During this period, the Medieval Helmets became more sophisticated , and the movable visor was introduced. The helmets of the 14th Century are composed chiefly of a mixture of iron-plate and chain-mail.  Among them, the visored bascinet with camail was much in vogue. It was made of three parts: the skull-piece, the visor, and the camail.

The visor, which turned on side pivots, could be removed, so it allows the helm to be added to the knight defenses by placing it over the bascinet. However, this was not a rule, as the visored bascinet itself was sometimes used for war, instead of the helm. It is in this century that the beaked bascinet was also introduced.

Medieval Helmets in the 15th Century

The Medieval Helmets classification under the two categories of helms and helmets still applies in the 15th century.  The helms of this century exhibit crests of every variety of fanciful design. Thought a particular crest was no doubt generally worn by each knight, it was not unusual for a champion to appear with the crest of some remote ancestor. Sometimes, no more than a plume of feathers was worn in lieu of any definite cognizance.

The beaked bascinet was in use, as illustrated in the illuminations of the beginning of the century, and the Medieval Helmets were further diversified with the introduction of the bascinet with globose (rounded) visor.

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Michael Tabone has 1 articles online

Historical Arms and Armour Institute was established a few years ago by a group of dedicated men, who hold to their heart and have great concern towards our rich European culture, especially that of Malta, The Island of the Great Siege of 1565, the island where the era of the Knight was eased out., Amongst others Historical Arms and Armour Institute have Master craftsmen and Master armourers who have been producing functional authentic replicas of Arms and Armour for the past twenty-five years of experience in professional consultancy in all the stages required for manufacturing of Arms and Armour. Historical Arms and Armour Institute have produced pieces of armour, for local museums such as The Palace Armoury, Palazzo Falzone and also for the Malta International Airport, of which a showcase with our armour is on display at the Arrivals section (look it up on your next trip to Malta). Historical Arms and Armour Institute have also been commissioned by Heritage Malta to recreate missing pieces for original armour presently on display at the Palace armoury and in European Union. Historical Armouries at Historical Arms and Armour Institute, educate and teach all that one needs to know about period arms and armour, how it was made, how it works, what was its function, when it was used, who used such armour, etc. Historical Arms and Armour Institute have also introduced a New Adult course on production of authentic Arms and armour, the first of its kind in Europe. This course is spanned over 3 years and we are on the 3rd year now. Our students have learned how to make maille armour, and shields, have also learned a lot about Arms and Armour in general and of course a comprehensive study of historical battles, war tactics, and function of siege weapons. Historical Armouries also cater for the movie industry, should any movie company require our services with regards to arms armour or man power, we can accommodate them locally, which makes things much easer and economic for the movie makers in question. In the very near future we shall be introducing historical re-enactments of all sorts, including a museum and library, close to our workshops.

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Medieval Helmets

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This article was published on 2010/12/23